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A Guide for Eye Bolts and Lifting Points - Types and Safe Use.

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1. Overview 

Eye bolts and lifting points

Eyebolts, one of the most commonly used items of lifting gear, have severe limitations in usage and a high level of accidents occur as the result of misuse. Eyebolts are used in a wide variety of applications to provide lifting points on loads. Sometimes the hole they are screwed into is there specifically for the eyebolt.

Alternatively, a hole which is primarily intended for some other purpose, such as a stud, can be utilised. Traditionally eye bolts were often fitted to their load and left in place for life, is regarded as part of the load. However, the modern practice is to treat detachable lifting points as lifting accessories. As such most countries require that they are periodically inspected or thoroughly examined. Therefore good practice is to remove eyebolts, plug the holes and put the eyebolts into storage until needed. This often considerably reduces the quantity required and opens up other options.

In general, the best alternative to eyebolts are the modern lifting points, swivel links, and hoist rings. Although there is not a specific standard for these, several reputable manufacturers including Codipro, Crosby, RUD, and Yoke, who make them to their own designs. These new generation lifting points offer advanced engineering and increased load capacities over standard eyebolts.

Swivel-eye-boltThe designs vary but the real advantage is essentially that they all offer types which incorporate a link large enough to accept a comparable hook, connected through a bearing to a bolt which screws into the load. These have bearings which allow for 360º rotation which removes any alignment problems and the link will tilt to the line of force. Some have a latch to lock the bolt to the link thereby allowing the link to be used as a lever to tighten or slacken the bolt when fitting. They are a portable lifting accessory designed to be easily fitted and removed.

These new links are considerably more expensive than traditional eyebolts but their advantages can easily outweigh their initial cost which is, in any case, often low compared to the value of the machinery they are to lift. The table on the following page shows the benefits of strength and usability.

Eye bolt load comparisons


 

2. Eye Bolt Types

Dynamo Eyebolts 2.1

Dynamo EyeboltPerhaps the most common application is an eyebolt located centrally in the top casing of an electric motor. These eyebolts usually have an eye large enough to engage with a hook of similar capacity thereby providing an easy connection to a small hoist or a single leg sling.

They are designed for axial loading only, for example, along the axis of the screw thread. They usually have a small diameter collar between the eye and the screw thread.

However, this is not sufficient to support the eye if it is loaded at an angle to the thread axis. They are called dynamo eyebolts, which reflects their original application in early power generators.

Prior to the introduction of a British Standard, dynamo eyebolts were manufactured to a wide range of ‘commercial’ patterns of varying quality. However, their typical applications were such that they were usually only used a few times during the lifetime of the equipment they were screwed into. As such cost was a more important consideration than performance characteristics like fatigue life.

Dynamo Eyebolts - For Axial loads only (NOT TO BE USED FOR ANGLED LIFTS)

  • Material: B S970-080A27 hardened and tempered
  • Safety Factor: MBL equals 5 x SWL
  • Standard: B.S. 4278 - table 3 - 1984
  • Finish: self-colour, electro-galvanized 
  • Certificates: this product is supplied with a works certificate as standard
  • Note : upon request a basic raw material and/or EC Declaration of Conformity is available

Dynamo eyebolts are available in (Click on type required to view more)


 

Collared Eyebolts 2.2

collared Eye boltAlthough Dynamo eyebolts are a relatively low-cost item, the limitation on axial loading is obviously a considerable disadvantage as, for many applications, two or more lifting points are required.
The answer is an eyebolt with a large collar between the eye and the screw thread. With the collar screwed firmly down onto a machined face, it can support the eye and prevent any bending of the screw thread.

By also reducing the size of the eye, it keeps the leverage to a minimum. This design is called a collar eyebolt and can be considered as the general-purpose eyebolt.
The underside of a collar eyebolt has a thread run-out at the top of the screw thread and an undercut of the collar. Small radius curves blend the transitions between the screw thread, plain shank, undercut and collar. These avoid unnecessary stress concentrations which can lead to fatigue failure and the undercut ensures that the collar can sit fully down onto a machined face.

Although a collar eyebolt is designed for angular use it is nevertheless necessary to align the eye to the line of pull. A tolerance of ±5º is acceptable but it is a matter of luck whether this will be achieved when first screwed in because the eyebolt manufacturer has no control over the start point of the threaded hole. Therefore it is permissible to shim up to half the screw pitch to achieve the correct orientation.

This brings us to some details about the screw thread itself. The current British Standard for eyebolts is BS 4278 and it specifies coarse series metric threads. Eyebolts are made from higher tensile steel and, if screwed into the same strength material, would need only to engage for a length equal to that of a full nut. However, it is possible and even likely that the material they are screwed into will be considerably weaker. The screwed length is therefore extended to compensate. Also, the eyebolt manufacturer has no control over the tolerances of the screwed hole, hence the restriction to coarse series threads.

The screw thread required for a particular application is of course dictated by the threaded hole. New eyebolts are required to fit old equipment which may have imperial threads. Standard eyebolts can have other screw threads and BS 4278 does allow for imperial threads for replacement purposes.

Eyebolt alignmentIf the hole is not specifically for an eyebolt, its primary purpose will dictate the thread used which may, for example, be a fine series thread. If the tolerances between the eyebolt and hole are not tight enough, a fine thread may not be strong enough. So, whilst this does not rule out the use of fine threads, it does place greater responsibility on the user to ensure a good fit.

A final point for the user to check is that the thread forms of the eyebolt and hole are the same. Unfortunately, certain sizes of metric, UNC and Whitworth threads will engage with each other and appear to be compatible.


However, they are, in effect, hanging on by their fingertips and not strong enough to take the load. When the current British Standard was written, an exercise was carried out to identify these possible mismatches and they were eliminated from the standard range of sizes.
Unfortunately, the standard cannot control this problem entirely and certainly not when special sizes and thread forms are specified.

Stresses

When used at an angle, the working load of a collar eyebolt must be reduced to take account of the different stresses imposed. For the BS 4278 collar eyebolt, the reduction factors are: 0.63 for angles up to 15º to the vertical; 0.4 for angles up to 30º; 0.25 for angles up to 45º. These reductions are considerably more than those which apply to slings.

The logic behind them is that the force on an eyebolt increase due to two factors: the geometry as in a sling, and the additional effect of loading it at an angle to its axis. These reduction factors are now being challenged by a new standard which has just been approved jointly by ISO and CEN.

Whereas the current British Standard is fully dimensioned, the new standard is a performance standard with a limited dimensional envelope for compatibility purposes only. It allows manufacturers to design eyebolts capable of working to the same angle factors as used for slings.

As this standard is very new and not yet implemented into national standards, it remains to be seen how many manufacturers will take advantage of it. It is hoped many do as it is a significant step forward.
Meanwhile, for the foreseeable future, products to the current standard are likely to be the most widely available.

Trunnion-LiftCollar eyebolts can be used as trunnions, that is when the load is applied at right angles to the thread axis. Typically the eyebolt is screwed into the side of the load rather than the top. The eye must be aligned with the line of pull, as explained above, and the rating is reduced to 0.25 of the marked working load.

 

 

 Collared Eyebolts 

  • Material: BS970-080A27 hardened and tempered
  • Safety Factor: MBL equals 5 x SWL
  • Standard: B.S. 4278 - table 1 - 1984
  • Finish: self-colour, electro-galvanized 
  • Certificates: this product is supplied with a works certificate as standard
  • Note: upon request a basic raw material and/or EC Declaration of Conformity is available

 Collared eyebolts are available in (Click on type required to view more)


 Eyebolts with Link 2.3

Eyebolt with linkThe eye of a collar eyebolt is too small to accept a hook so a shackle is always needed as the first item of any connection. However, BS 4278 does offer a third option and that is the eyebolt with link.

The origin of this eyebolt is the swivels which were once widely used in traditional ships’ derrick rigs. One of the two forgings used to make the swivel is, in effect, a very compact form of collar eyebolt. The eye is just large enough to accept a link of comparable grade and strength. The link can articulate in any direction within the eye. In combination with the very compact eye, this allows it to be loaded in any direction, removing the need to align the eye to the line of pull. For a given thread size the axial working load is less than that of a collar eyebolt but the reduction

factors for angular use are better. They can be used up to 15º to the vertical without any reduction and the other factors are 0.8 for angles up to 30º and 0.63 for angles up to 45º. Unfortunately, because of their origin, they are only available in a small range of sizes. 

 

Eyebolts With Oval Link - metric coarse thread

  • Material: BS970-080A27 hardened and tempered
  • Standard: B.S. 4278 - table 2 – 1984
  • Safety Factor: MBL equals 5 x SWL
  • Finish: self-colour
  • Certificates: this product is supplied with a works certificate as standard
  • Note: upon request a basic raw material and/or EC Declaration of Conformity is available

Eyebolts with links are available in (Click on type required to view more)

EYEBOLTS WITH OVAL LINK - METRIC ( BS4278 - TABLE 2 - 1984 )


 

Collar Eyebolt with Welded Link 2.4

Eyebolt with welded linkThese are collar eyebolts permanently fitted with a welded link. Properly done, this is an acceptable alternative to using a shackle.

However, they should not be confused with the standard eyebolt with a link. Their rating and the alignment requirements are still those of a collar eyebolt.

  • Material:: Eyebolt: BS970-080A27 hardened and tempered.: Link:: high tensile steel
  • Safety Factor MBL equals 5 x SWL
  • Finish: self-colour
  • Certificate: this product is supplied with a works certificate as standard

Note: for safe working load when used at angles please refer to safety instructions.

For eyebolt, dimensions refer to BS 4278 tables 1 & 4

Eyebolts with links are available in (Click on type required to view more)

COLLARED EYEBOLTS C/W REEVABLE EGG LINK - METRIC

COLLARED EYEBOLTS C/W REEVABLE EGG LINK - BSW THREAD


 Eyebolts to DIN 580   2.5

Eyebolts to DIN 580DIN 580 (Foreign) standard eye bolts made of steel and of stainless steel. This standard specifies the characteristics of eye bolts made of steel and stainless steel and provides information for their correct use in hoist operations (as part of slings and as a load suspension device). Use CAUTION when lifting. Any angle beyond vertical (axial lift ) will reduce the rating capacity refer to load charts. Eyebolts conforming to this standard are suitable for use at temperatures ranging from -20 °C to +200 °C without a reduction in their lifting capacity. Material identification symbol: C15 or C15E.

 

Eyebolts to DIN 580 are available in (Click on type required to view more)

EYEBOLTS - METRIC COARSE THREAD TO DIN 580 - SELF COLOUR FINISH

EYEBOLTS - METRIC COARSE THREAD TO DIN 580 -ZINC PLATED FINISH

Stainless Steel Lifting Eyebolts - DIN 580

 


 

Female Eye Nuts and Bow Nuts 2.6


Eyenut Bow nutBefore we go on to the new generation of modern lifting points, swivel links and hoist rings. There are another two traditional lifting eyes you will see. These are the eye nut and bow nut. Essentially they are the same thing except for the shape of the eye, one being circular and the other more elongated similar to a bow shackle. They are in effect female dynamo eyebolts although they are designed for pipe hanger and similar applications rather than lifting. There was a British Standard for them but it is now withdrawn.

The standard specified mild steel although other grades may be commercially available. It would be better to avoid using them, although it is acknowledged that there may be applications where there is no better alternative. If they are used, they should only be loaded axially and clearly the stud they are screwed onto is a critical component in the connection. For angular loadings see RUD VRM

 

High Tensile Steel Normalised Eye Nuts 2.7

Axial loads only (NOT TO BE USED FOR ANGLED LIFTS

Eyenuts - metric coarse ( BSW thread available)
• Material: high tensile steel
• Safety Factor: MBL equals 5 x SWL
• Finish: self colour, electro-galvanised upon request
• Certificates: this product is supplied with a works certificate as standard

 Eye nuts are available in (Click on type required to view more)

Eyenuts - metric coarse thread - Self Colour

Eyenuts - metric coarse thread - Zinc Plated

Eyenuts - BSW thread - Self Colour

Eyenuts - BSW thread - Zinc Plated

 


 

High Tensile Steel Normalised Bow Nuts 2.8

For Axial loads only (NOT TO BE USED FOR ANGLED LIFTS)

Bownuts - metric coarse ( BSW thread available)
• Material: high tensile steel
• Safety Factor: MBL equals 5 x SWL
• Standard: generally to B.S. 3974 - Part 1 - 1974
• Finish: self-colour, electro-galvanised upon request
• Certificates: this product is supplied with a works certificate as standard

Bow nuts are available in (Click on type required to view more)

Bownuts - Metric coarse thread - Self Colour

Bownuts - Metric coarse thread - Zinc Plated

Bownuts - BSW thread - Self Colour

Bownuts - BSW thread - Zinc Plated


Eye Nuts to DIN 582    2.9

here are also DIN582 (Foreign) standard eye nuts with the same properties and angle reductions as DIN 580 Eyebolts. Material identification symbol: C15 or C15E.

• Material: carbon steel, C15
• Safety factor: MBL equals 4 x WLL
• Standard: generally to DIN 582
• Finish: self-colour or electro-galvanised
• Certification: This product is supplied with a works certificate as standard

Eye nuts to DIN 582 are available in (Click on type required to view more)

EYENUTS - METRIC COARSE THREAD TO DIN 582 - SELF COLOUR

EYENUTS - METRIC COARSE THREAD TO DIN 582 - ZINC PLATED

Stainless Steel Lifting Eyenuts - DIN 582


 RUD RS EYEBOLTS   2.10

RUD RS Eye boltsHigh-tensile eye bolts - Higher WLL than DIN 580 or BS Eyebolts
Forged, tempered and 100% crack detected.
Fool-proof compared with common DIN eye bolts by:

  • Shape: Octagonal means quality class 8
  • Identification: Distinct indication of WLL for the most unfavourable case (lateral load - not allowed with DIN 580).
  • Ensure the eye bolt is bolted down flush to the surface! Avoid twisting movements during transport.
  • Complies with the machinery directives 2006/42/EG

Also available in imperial and special threads.
Before lifting check the tightness of the eye bolt
and nut!
▲Avoid rotating movement during transport.
Assure a plane bolting surface.

Attention: Refer to RUD user instructions!

 

RUD RS Eye bolts are available in (Click on type required to view more)

RUD RS Eye Bolt - Metric Thread

RUD RS Eye Bolt - UNC / UN Thread


  RUD RM Eye Nut 

RUD RM Eye nut

RUD RM Eye Nuts are also available
Higher WLL than compared with DIN 582 eye nuts.
Forged, tempered and 100% crack detected. Fool-proof compared with common DIN eye nuts
by:Shape: Octagonal means quality class 8 Identification: Distinct indication of WLL for the most
unfavourable case (lateral load - not allowed with DIN 582).In order to guarantee the WLL, the
thread connection must at least consist of quality 8.8. Eyenut must be bolted tight during use. Avoid
twisting movements during transport.
■ The given WLL is only valid in connection with threaded bolts of at least quality class 10.9.

RUD RM Eye nuts are available in (Click on type required to view more)

RUD RM Eye Nut - Metric Thread

 

 

 


 RUD STARPOINT VRS -F  EYEBOLTS   2.11 Vario-Starpoint VRS with star key

RUD VRS-F StarpointStar-shaped design, a clear distinction from the DIN 580 eye bolt.

Colour: striking fluorescent pink powder coating.

Identification: Clear WLL 90°indication for the most unfavourable load direction (not permissible for DIN 580).

Forged material 1.6541, high tensile and annealed, 100% electromagnetic crack detected according to EN 1677-1 and with a 4 :1 design factor.

If the VRS permanently to remain at the point of force introduction, it must be tightened with a torque of 5 Nm.

Complies with the machinery directives 2006/42/EG

RUD VRS Starpoint Eye bolts are available in (Click on type required to view more)

RUD VRS-F STARPOINT - Metric Thread

VRS-F STARPOINT, UNC/UN thread

 


 

RUD VRM STARPOINT ( Eye Nut ) - Metric Thread  2.11 Continued

 

Rud VRM Eye nutComplies with the machinery directives 2006/42/EG

  • The body of the STARPOINT nut must be turnable 360° in bolted condition. Adjust in pull direction before attaching the sling means.
  • A plane bolting surface has to be assured. The nut thread must be engaged to 100 % with the bolt thread. The threaded pin mounted must allow a perfect seat of the surface of the eye nut to the bolting surface.
  • Sizes of VRM - see drawing VRS-StarPoint. Size „L“ corresponds with the minimum length of the bolt thread.
  • In case of flipping fixtures dies and moulds, under full load, we recommend using our double ball-bearing powerpoint collection.
  • The given WLL for 90° is only valid in connection with threaded bolts of at least quality class 10.9.

RUD VRM Starpoint Eye nuts are available in (Click on type required to view more)

RUD VRM STARPOINT ( Eye Nut ) - Metric Thread

 

 

 


 

RUD INOX STAR Eyebolt   2.12

RUD INOX star eyeboltComplies with the machinery directives 2006/42/EG INOX-STAR eyebolt – stainless – 50 % more than DIN with no directional restrictions!

  • Pentagonal shape – significantly different from the DIN 580 eyebolt.
  • Turns through 360°. Can be set in the direction of the load.
  • A clear statement of rated load 90°for the unfavourable load range. Safety factor 4: 1.
  • Forged eye body.
  • The material of eye body and screw: 1.4462, duplex steel (high durability in seawater and in environments with high chlorine ion concentrations).
  • 100 % crack-tested
  • Captive mounted bolt.
  • Patented wear marks on the eye body.
  • Tighten hand-tight when mounting with a hexagonal wrench or adapter piece. Do not use an extension.
  • The INOX-STAR must be able to be turned through 360° when screwed in.
  • Set in the direction of force before loading.
  • Component protected under patent law: European patent EP 654611.

RUD INOX Starpoint Eyebolts are available in (Click on type required to view more)

RUD INOX STAR Eyebolt


 

RUD VWBG-V– 360° swivelling/180° pivoting Lifting Points  2.13

  • RUD VWBG Lifting pointsSwivelling lifting point:
  • Loadable in any direction. Safety factor 4: 1.
  • urnable under load in the vertical direction.
  • Not suitable for permanent swivelling under full load, especially in 90° direction.
  • Simple installation, just a thread hole is required.
  • Variable lengths (Vario) available.
  • Can also be used for through holes.
  • Bolts 100 % magnetic crack detected! Surface protection CORRUD-DT (20 times better than zinc plating).
  • High tensile, approved suspension ring acc. EN 1677-4.
  • Surface: Ring pink powder coating, housing zinc plated.
  • Type Vario with washer and 100 % crack detected nut.
  • VWBG-V and VWBG are also available with Imperial thread.
  • Turning without jerk due to additional bush bearing washer.
  • Wear marks in the main load directions 45°, 60° and 90°.

RUD VWBG Lifting points are available in (Click on type required to view more)

RUD VWBG Load Ring - Metric Thread

RUD VWBG Load Ring - Metric Thread with Variable Length

VWBG Load Ring - UNC Thread

VWBG-V Load Ring - UNC Thread With Variable Length